Tiempo espacial

Velocidad del viento solar Campos magnéticos por viento solar Flujo de radio de 10,7 cm al medidodía
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ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 23.06.2021 07:34 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2021 Jun 23 0705 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 724 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 21.06.2021 08:38 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3146
Begin Time: 2021 Jun 17 0835 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4546 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 20.06.2021 05:00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3145
Begin Time: 2021 Jun 17 0835 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4224 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emitido: 19.06.2021 04:59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3144
Begin Time: 2021 Jun 17 0835 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4737 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emitido: 18.06.2021 07:21 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3143
Begin Time: 2021 Jun 17 0835 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4862 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emitido: 17.06.2021 08:37 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2021 Jun 17 0835 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emitido: 16.06.2021 02:55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1605
Valid From: 2021 Jun 15 2055 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Jun 16 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 16.06.2021 02:55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3912
Valid From: 2021 Jun 15 1345 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Jun 16 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Emitido: 15.06.2021 21:01 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2021 Jun 15 2100 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emitido: 15.06.2021 20:58 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2021 Jun 15 2055 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Jun 16 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emitido: 15.06.2021 20:58 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 Jun 15 2057 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 15.06.2021 20:58 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3911
Valid From: 2021 Jun 15 1345 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Jun 16 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 15.06.2021 13:39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Jun 15 1345 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Jun 15 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Emitido: 15.06.2021 12:14 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jun 16: G1 (Minor) Jun 17: G1 (Minor) Jun 18: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 13.06.2021 01:21 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Jun 13 0121 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Jun 13 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emitido: 12.06.2021 04:52 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 Jun 12 0452 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 12.06.2021 04:00 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Jun 12 0400 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Jun 12 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Emitido: 9.06.2021 12:21 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2021 Jun 09 1201 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 2812 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emitido: 8.06.2021 00:06 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 Jun 07 2359 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 7.06.2021 23:41 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Jun 07 2340 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Jun 08 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 7.06.2021 19:22 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Jun 07 1922 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Jun 07 2300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CANCEL ALERT
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Emitido: 29.05.2021 08:36 UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Cancel Serial Number: 318
Original Issue Time: 2021 May 29 0319 UTC

Comment: 10 MeV proton flux greater than 10 pfu no longer observed.

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

CANCEL WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Emitido: 29.05.2021 08:35 UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Cancel Serial Number: 474
Original Issue Time: 2021 May 29 0043 UTC

Comment: The 10 MeV proton flux decreased below 10 pfu. S1 (Minor) solar radiation storms are no longer expected.

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

SUMMARY
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Emitido: 29.05.2021 08:31 UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Begin Time: 2021 May 29 0300 UTC
Maximum Time: 2021 May 29 0320 UTC
End Time: 2021 May 29 0540 UTC
Maximum 10MeV Flux: 15 pfu
NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

ALERT
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Emitido: 29.05.2021 03:19 UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Begin Time: 2021 May 29 0300 UTC
NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Emitido: 29.05.2021 00:43 UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Valid From: 2021 May 29 0042 UTC
Valid To: 2021 May 29 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
Predicted NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Emitido: 29.05.2021 00:25 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2021 May 28 2301 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Emitido: 29.05.2021 00:24 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2021 May 28 2303 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 2087 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emitido: 27.05.2021 02:45 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2021 May 27 0244 UTC
Valid To: 2021 May 27 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 27.05.2021 02:44 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3905
Valid From: 2021 May 26 1625 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 May 27 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Emitido: 26.05.2021 20:28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2021 May 26 2028 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emitido: 26.05.2021 18:30 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 May 26 1828 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emitido: 26.05.2021 18:22 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2021 May 26 1825 UTC
Valid To: 2021 May 26 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 26.05.2021 18:21 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3904
Valid From: 2021 May 26 1625 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 May 27 0559 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emitido: 26.05.2021 16:22 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3141
Begin Time: 2021 May 24 1805 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1531 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emitido: 26.05.2021 16:21 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 May 26 1625 UTC
Valid To: 2021 May 26 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Emitido: 26.05.2021 13:18 UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Observed: 2021 May 26 1252 UTC
Deviation: 20 nT
Station: Newport

WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Emitido: 26.05.2021 12:02 UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Valid From: 2021 May 26 1250 UTC
Valid To: 2021 May 26 1330 UTC
IP Shock Passage Observed: 2021 May 26 1148 UTC

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emitido: 25.05.2021 12:43 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3140
Begin Time: 2021 May 24 1805 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1263 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

Tabla

Fecha Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Número de manchas solares Zona de manchas solares 10E-6 Nuevas regiones GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Llamaradas
X-ray óptico
C M X S 1 2 3
25.05.2021 84 36 140 1 * 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
26.05.2021 88 34 490 0 * 7 0 0 16 1 0 0
27.05.2021 83 34 530 0 * 3 0 0 4 0 0 0
28.05.2021 77 28 530 0 * 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
29.05.2021 76 26 130 1 * 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
30.05.2021 74 27 70 1 * 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
31.05.2021 82 31 120 0 * 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
01.06.2021 75 20 100 0 * 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
02.06.2021 76 30 80 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
03.06.2021 76 28 80 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
04.06.2021 77 30 70 0 * 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
05.06.2021 74 30 150 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
06.06.2021 77 42 180 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
07.06.2021 81 53 170 1 * 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
08.06.2021 80 34 90 0 * 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
09.06.2021 79 27 30 1 * 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
10.06.2021 73 29 20 0 * 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
11.06.2021 77 13 10 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12.06.2021 78 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
13.06.2021 69 22 140 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
14.06.2021 77 11 100 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15.06.2021 76 11 60 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
16.06.2021 76 11 130 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
17.06.2021 75 12 130 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
18.06.2021 77 24 130 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
19.06.2021 77 15 120 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20.06.2021 76 13 90 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
21.06.2021 79 11 160 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22.06.2021 81 12 130 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
23.06.2021 80 11 820 0 * 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Media/Total 78 24 167 8 22 0 0 32 2 0 0

Gráfico resumen

Llamaradas

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

índices k



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Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Fecha A índices k (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
26.05.2021 13 1 1 2 1 3 3 5 3
27.05.2021 16 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 2
28.05.2021 3 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1
29.05.2021 7 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 2
30.05.2021 6 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
31.05.2021 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
01.06.2021 3 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0
02.06.2021 5 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1
03.06.2021 6 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 0
04.06.2021 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
05.06.2021 4 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
06.06.2021 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
07.06.2021 12 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4
08.06.2021 5 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
09.06.2021 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 0
10.06.2021 5 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 2
11.06.2021 10 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2
12.06.2021 10 3 4 2 2 2 2 1 2
13.06.2021 7 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1
14.06.2021 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
15.06.2021 17 2 2 2 2 3 3 5 4
16.06.2021 14 4 3 3 3 2 3 2 3
17.06.2021 7 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 1
18.06.2021 7 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2
19.06.2021 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
20.06.2021 4 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 3
21.06.2021 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
22.06.2021 7 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 2
23.06.2021 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
24.06.2021

Middle Latitude

Fecha A índices k
26.05.2021 12 0 3 3 3 3
27.05.2021 15 3 3 4 4 2 3 2 2
28.05.2021 3 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1
29.05.2021 7 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3
30.05.2021 7 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3
31.05.2021 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
01.06.2021 3 2 0 0 1 2 2 1 0
02.06.2021 5 0 1 1 1 3 2 1 2
03.06.2021 8 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 1
04.06.2021 4 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
05.06.2021 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2
06.06.2021 6 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
07.06.2021 15 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4
08.06.2021 7 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 1
09.06.2021 4 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 0
10.06.2021 5 1 0 0 2 3 1 1 2
11.06.2021 11 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2
12.06.2021 8 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2
13.06.2021 7 3 3 1 2 2 1 1 0
14.06.2021 7 0 0 1 2 3 3 2 2
15.06.2021 15 2 2 3 2 4 3 4 3
16.06.2021 15 4 4 2 3 2 3 2 3
17.06.2021 9 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 2
18.06.2021 8 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2
19.06.2021 5 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1
20.06.2021 4 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 3
21.06.2021 3 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 1
22.06.2021 8 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 2
23.06.2021 6 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 0
24.06.2021

High Latitude

Fecha A índices k
26.05.2021 0
27.05.2021 4 1 2 1
28.05.2021 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
29.05.2021 8 0 0 1 3 4 3 1 0
30.05.2021 3 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 2
31.05.2021 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
01.06.2021 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
02.06.2021 4 1 1 0 0 3 2 0 1
03.06.2021 11 1 2 4 3 4 2 0 0
04.06.2021 2 1 1 0 2 1 0 1 0
05.06.2021 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
06.06.2021 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
07.06.2021 16 1 2 3 3 5 2 3 3
08.06.2021 5 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 1
09.06.2021 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
10.06.2021 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
11.06.2021 23 2 3 4 4 5 5 1 2
12.06.2021 12 4 4 2 1 3 1 2 1
13.06.2021 5 3 3 1 0 0 1 0 0
14.06.2021 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
15.06.2021 13 2 3 1 3 4 3 2 3
16.06.2021 14 3 4 1 4 3 1 2
17.06.2021 9 2 2 4 3 2 1 1 1
18.06.2021 18 2 3 3 5 5 2 1 1
19.06.2021 5 2 2 1 3 1 0 0 1
20.06.2021 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
21.06.2021 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
22.06.2021 7 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1
23.06.2021 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
24.06.2021

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Fuente de datos: NOAA, Wikipedia

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